Possible adverse impacts of disinformation targeting Bangladesh’s January 7 elections


As Bangladesh prepares for its upcoming 12th national parliamentary elections on January 7, 2024, concerns are rising over the alleged efforts of the BNP-Jamaat alliance to manipulate public perception through the spread of rumors and misinformation. Despite the citizens’ eagerness to exercise their voting rights, reports suggest that leaders from the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and Jamaat-e-Islami have invested significant resources in disseminating false information with the aim of discouraging people from participating in the electoral process. This article delves into the unfolding situation, examining the strategies employed by the BNP-Jamaat alliance, the response from law enforcement agencies, and the broader implications for the democratic fabric of Bangladesh.

According to political analysts and intelligence sources, BNP-Jamaat activists have been actively involved in spreading rumors across various social media platforms, including Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter. The rumors, carefully crafted to tarnish the image of key political figures, government institutions, and even the armed forces, are purportedly designed to create doubt and undermine the credibility of the upcoming elections. The primary objective appears to be ensuring a low voter turnout, thereby casting a shadow of illegitimacy over the electoral process.

The disinformation campaign has taken diverse forms, ranging from fake notices about poll-time public holidays to baseless allegations against Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and other senior ruling party leaders. The Ministry of Public Administration has already issued statements debunking some of these false claims, emphasizing the need for vigilance against misleading information.

In response to the growing threat of misinformation, law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh have intensified their efforts to curb the spread of rumors, especially in the cyber domain. The Assistant Inspector General (Media and Public Relations) of the Police Headquarters, Enamul Haque Sagor, affirmed the commitment of the Bangladesh Police to take stern action against those found spreading rumors related to the upcoming elections.

Specialized units within the police force have bolstered cyber patrolling activities to combat cybercrimes, with a focus on preventing the dissemination of false information. A comprehensive strategy involving nationwide coordination aims to counteract the attempts of BNP-Jamaat activists to manipulate public opinion through the virtual realm.

Cyber experts have noted a concerning surge in political rumors on the internet, particularly in the last three months leading up to the elections. The disinformation tactics have evolved, encompassing fake photo cards, misleading videos with deceptive titles and thumbnails, and the use of fabricated media IDs. Social media platforms, especially Facebook and YouTube, have become the primary channels for the spread of political rumors.

In October 2023, an increase in fake photo cards was observed, while December witnessed a proliferation of videos with misleading titles and thumbnails. The intensity of the disinformation campaign has been alarming, with evidence of 600 rumors identified in fact-checks during the last three months. Of these, 45 percent pertained to political issues, and a staggering 83.70 percent of the political rumors were related to the national polls.

The disinformation campaign has not spared prominent political figures, government officials, and institutions. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has been a focal point, with a maximum of 56 rumors circulating about her. Additionally, the Bangladesh Army, police department, Chief Election Commissioner Kazi Habibul Awal, and international organizations and diplomats have been subjects of false allegations.

The disinformation net has extended to include other figures such as Awami League general secretary Obaidul Quader, Jatiya Party Chairman GM Quader, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s son Sajeeb Wazed Joy, cricketer Shakib Al Hasan, and several other public figures. The breadth of targets suggests a comprehensive effort to disrupt the electoral process by sowing seeds of doubt and mistrust.

The alleged disinformation campaign raises critical questions about the state of democracy in Bangladesh and the integrity of the electoral process. With the elections just around the corner, the intentional spread of rumors not only undermines the trust of the electorate but also poses a threat to the overall democratic framework of the country.

The BNP-Jamaat alliance’s strategy, if proven true, could erode the foundations of a fair and transparent electoral system. The potential impact on voter turnout and the perception of legitimacy surrounding the elections could have far-reaching consequences for the political landscape of Bangladesh.

In light of the escalating disinformation crisis, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has urged the journalist community to remain vigilant against rumors and misleading information. Recognizing the pivotal role of the media in shaping public opinion, she emphasized the need for responsible journalism to counter the effects of the disinformation campaign.

The Prime Minister’s call to action underscores the importance of a collaborative effort between the government, law enforcement agencies, and the media to safeguard the democratic process and uphold the principles of transparency and accountability.

As the primary conduits for the spread of political rumors, social media platforms face increased scrutiny in their role as facilitators of disinformation. Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, in particular, have become battlegrounds for competing narratives, with the BNP-Jamaat alliance leveraging these platforms to disseminate false information.

The challenge for these platforms lies in striking a balance between freedom of expression and preventing the misuse of their services to manipulate public opinion. The effectiveness of their content moderation policies will play a crucial role in mitigating the impact of disinformation campaigns on the democratic processes of the country.

The issue of disinformation is not unique to Bangladesh, as countries worldwide grapple with the challenges posed by online misinformation campaigns. The international community has witnessed the destabilizing effects of false narratives on political processes, leading to increased calls for coordinated efforts to address the root causes of disinformation.

Lessons from other nations that have faced similar challenges could provide valuable insights for Bangladesh in developing robust strategies to counter the influence of disinformation on its democratic institutions.

Given the evolving nature of cyber threats, Bangladesh’s law enforcement agencies have rightfully prioritized cyber-security measures to counter disinformation campaigns. Strengthening cyber patrolling and collaboration with cybersecurity experts will be essential in staying ahead of those who seek to manipulate public opinion through online platforms.

Investments in technology, training, and international cooperation can collectively contribute to building a resilient cyber-security infrastructure capable of safeguarding the integrity of democratic processes.

As Bangladesh approaches a crucial moment in its democratic journey with the upcoming parliamentary elections, the specter of a disinformation campaign orchestrated by the BNP-Jamaat alliance poses a serious threat to the legitimacy of the electoral process. Law enforcement agencies, political leaders, and the media must collaborate to expose and counteract the spread of rumors, ensuring that the democratic principles that underpin the nation remain robust and resilient.

The challenges presented by the disinformation campaign also highlight the need for continuous efforts to educate the public on media literacy and critical thinking. In an era where information is easily accessible, the ability to discern between fact and fiction becomes paramount in safeguarding the democratic values that form the bedrock of Bangladesh’s political landscape.


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